Media Literacy In Higher Education: “Know-Where” and “Know-Whether”… Know-Why to Know Better?


With the objectives of the Grünwald Declaration (1983), the Alexandria Proclamation (2006), the UNESCO Paris Agenda (2007) and the concept of media literacy (alias understanding and using mass media in either an assertive or non-assertive way, including an informed and critical understanding of media, the techniques they employ and their effects) on mind, it goes without saying that any communication takes place in a certain context (set of facts and circumstances surrounding a media text for the purpose of its interpretation as defined by Wilson et al., 2011, p. 182). Having media literacy on mind, “know-where” to search for information and “knowwhether” such researched information identifies facts imply in our understanding media and literacy, respectively. Then, know-why corresponds with our perception of the context (Wilson, 2011), and know better conveys “to know or understand the truth about something” (Merriam-Webster, n.d.). The perspective of Haider & Sundin (2022) is the one that the purpose of information literacy is to support people’s knowledge, competencies and resources for their proficient engagement with information (incl. finding, evaluating, producing, and communicating situated information in contextappropriate ways). On the one hand, literacy is a conceptual entity in the context of educational sciences; on the other hand, information literacy (just like media literacy) merely specifies media or information, data, digital, or artificial intelligence (AI) as an entity for literacy to latch onto. In the global survey – addressed to UNESCO networks of Associated Schools and university Chairs in May 2023 slightly over one-tenth of 450 institutions (of which 44% were from Europe) confirmed that they have developed institutional policies and/or formal guidance concerning the use of generative AI applications. Curriculum delivery at higher education institutions adheres to Bloom’s taxonomy (Bloom, 1956), which can be applied in two alternative modes: the traditional approach or the flipped approach, in a variety of cultural backgrounds. The aim of our paper is to map the awareness of media (and information) literacy among higher education students at the University of Economics in Bratislava with instruction either in the Slovak language or in the English language. Findings reveal gaps in recognition of sponsored content just like relatively low awareness of generally respected fact-checking online sites with remarkable discrepancies between the cohort studying in the Slovak language and the cohort studying in the English language.


“Know-Where”. “Know-Whether”. Know Better. Know-How. Know-What. Know-Why. Media (and Information) Literacy Education.